알기 쉬운 영문법
인쇄
과거완료 I had worked very hard.

Key Expressions

  1. I had worked very hard.
  2. I had never met him.
  3. I had lost my book.
  4. I had just finished this work.
  5. The train had already left when I arrived at the station.
  6. I bought a new car after I had earned enough money.
  7. I was sick because I had eaten too much.
  8. I bought the book that you had told me about.

Basic Grammar

A 과거완료의 형태

  • bullet 과거완료 : had + 과거 분사
    I, you, he, she, it, we, they had 과거분사
    • bullet had 의 줄임꼴 : 'd ⇒ I'd, you'd, he'd, she'd, it'd, we'd, they'd
    • bullet had 의 부정형 : had not
      had not 의 줄임꼴 : hadn't
    • bullet had 의 의문문 : Had I (you, he, she, it, we, they) ~?

B 과거완료가 사용되는 경우

  • bullet 현재완료가 '과거부터 현재까지의 기간에 걸친 사실'을 나타내는 것에 비해, 과거완료는 '과거 이전부터 과거까지의 기간에 걸친 사실'을 나타내며 현재완료와 마찬가지로 계속, 경험, 결과, 완료의 의미로 사용됩니다.

    • bullet I had worked very hard.(나는 매우 열심히 일을 해왔었다.) - 계속
    • bullet I had never met him. (나는 결코 그를 만난 적이 없었다.) - 경험
    • bullet I had lost my book. (나는 나의 책을 잃어버렸었다.) - 결과
    • bullet I had just finished this work. (나는 방금 이일을 끝마쳤었다.) - 완료

    또한 과거완료는 과거의 사실을 나타내는 부분과 함께 사용하여, '과거 이전에 일어난 사실'을 나타낼 때 주로 많이 사용됩니다.

    The train had already left when I arrived at the station.
    (내가 역에 도착했을 때, 기차는 이미 떠났었다.)
    ⇒ 역에 도착한 것은 과거이며, 기차가 떠난 것은 과거 보다 이전입니다.

    I bought a new car after I had earned enough money.
    (내가 충분한 돈을 번 후에, 나는 새차를 샀다.)
    ⇒ 내가 차를 산 것은 과거이며, 충분한 돈을 번 것은 과거 보다 이전입니다.

    I was sick because I had eaten too much.
    (나는 너무 많이 먹었기 때문에 아팠다.)
    ⇒ (내가 아픈 것은 과거이며, 너무 많이 먹은 것은 과거 보다 이전입니다.)

    I bought the book that you had told me about.
    (나는 네가 나에게 말했던 그 책을 샀다.)
    ⇒ (내가 그 책을 산 것은 과거이고, 네가 나에게 말한 것은 과거 보다 이전입니다.)
  • <참고>
    The train left when I arrived at the station.
    (내가 역에 도착했을 때, 기차는 떠났다.)
    ⇒ 역에 도착했을 때 그 때 기차가 떠났다는 것으로, 사건이 일어난 순서로 나타낼 때는 과거를 사용합니다.
    (= I arrived at the station and then the train left.)

    After they did their homework, they watched TV.
    (그들이 숙제를 한 후에, 그들은 TV를 보았다.)
    ⇒ after는 그 자체만으로도 때의 전후관계를 분명히 나타내므로, 과거완료 대신에 과거를 쓰기도 합니다.
    (= After they had done their homework, they watched TV.)

Exercise

정답확인
※ 주어진 문장에 적당한 것을 선택하세요.

1. My dad gave me a toy that he (bought, have bought, had bought) in New York.
2. He (has already left, had already left) when I got home.
3. Did you clean the room after they (have gone, had gone) out?
4. I had finished my homework before my mom (returned, had returned) home.
5. I (have focused, had focused) on the homework until the light was out.
6. He (was, has been, had been) dirty because he had played soccer.
7. (I've, I's, I'd) seen her before, but I couldn't remember when.
8. She had studied hard before she (went, has gone, had gone) to bed.
9. I (have never done, had never done) this kind of homework by that time.
10. He was the tallest man that (she've, she's she'd) ever seen.
line
1. had bought
2. had already left
3. had gone
4. returned
5. had focused
6. was
7. I'd
8. went
9. had never done
10. she'd