원활한 사이트 이용을 위해 크롬 브라우저 설치를 권장합니다.
알기 쉬운 영문법
인쇄
과거완료 I had worked very hard.

Key Expressions

  1. The train had already left when I arrived at the station.
  2. I bought a new car after I had earned enough money.
  3. I was sick because I had eaten too much.
  4. I bought the book that you had told me about.

Basic Grammar

A 과거완료의 형태

  • bullet 과거완료 : had + 과거 분사
    I, you, he, she, it, we, they had 과거분사
    • bullet had 의 줄임꼴 : 'd ⇒ I'd, you'd, he'd, she'd, it'd, we'd, they'd
    • bullet had 의 부정형 : had not
      had not 의 줄임꼴 : hadn't
    • bullet had 의 의문문 : Had I (you, he, she, it, we, they) ~?

B 과거완료가 사용되는 경우

  • bullet 현재완료가 '과거부터 현재까지의 기간에 걸친 사실'을 나타내는 것에 비해, 과거완료는 '더 이전 과거부터 그 뒤 과거까지의 기간에 걸친 사실'을 나타내며 현재완료와 마찬가지로 계속, 경험, 결과, 완료의 의미로 사용됩니다.
    특히 과거완료는 '과거 이전에 일어난 사실'을 나타낼 때 주로 많이 사용됩니다.

    The train had already left when I arrived at the station.
    (내가 역에 도착했을 때, 기차는 이미 떠났었다.)
    ⇒ 역에 도착한 것은 과거이며, 기차가 떠난 것은 과거 보다 이전입니다.

    I bought a new car after I had earned enough money.
    (내가 충분한 돈을 번 후에, 나는 새 차를 샀다.)
    ⇒ 내가 차를 산 것은 과거이며, 충분한 돈을 번 것은 과거 보다 이전입니다.

    I was sick because I had eaten too much.
    (나는 너무 많이 먹었기 때문에 메스꺼웠다.)
    ⇒ (내가 메스꺼웠던 것은 과거이며, 너무 많이 먹은 것은 과거 보다 이전입니다.)

    I bought the book that you had told me about.
    (나는 네가 나에게 말했던 그 책을 샀다.)
    ⇒ (내가 그 책을 산 것은 과거이고, 네가 나에게 말한 것은 과거 보다 이전입니다.)
  • <참고>
    The train left when I arrived at the station.
    (내가 역에 도착했을 때 기차는 떠났다.)
    ⇒ 사건을 일어난 순서대로 제시할 때는 과거완료 시제를 쓰지 않아도 됩니다.
    (= I arrived at the station and then the train left.)

    After they did their homework, they watched TV.
    (그들이 숙제를 한 후에, TV를 보았다.)
    ⇒ after, before처럼 사건의 전후 관계를 분명히 해주는 말이 올 때는 과거 시제를 써도 됩니다.
    (= After they had done their homework, they watched TV.)

Exercise

정답확인
※ 주어진 문장에 알맞은 것을 선택하세요.

1. My dad gave me a toy that he (buys, has bought, had bought) in New York.
2. He (has already left, had already left) when I got home.
3. Did you clean the house after they (have gone, had gone) out?
4. I had finished my homework before my mom (returned, had returned) home.
5. I (have focused, had focused) on my homework until the lights went out.
6. He (was, has been, had been) dirty because he had played soccer.
7. (I've, I's, I'd) seen her before, but I wasn’t able to remember when.
8. She had studied hard before she (went, has gone, had gone) to bed.
9. I (have never done, had never done) this kind of homework by that time.
10. He was the tallest man that (she've, she's, she'd) ever seen.
line
1. had bought
2. had already left
3. had gone
4. returned
5. had focused
6. was
7. I'd
8. went
9. had never done
10. she'd