알기 쉬운 영문법
인쇄
관계대명사 who, which, that, whom

Key Expressions

  1. He is the teacher who (=that) came to our school yesterday.
  2. Here is the store which (=that) sells books.
  3. He is playing with the dog which (=that) lives next door.
  4. I have two sons that (=who) live in Canada.
  5. He is the teacher whom (=who, that) I like. = He is the teacher I like.
  6. That is the book which (=that) I read. = That is the book I read.
  7. That is the bus for which I have waited. = That is the bus I have waited for.
  8. A girl named Mary lived here.
  9. I bought the book written by him.

Basic Grammar

A 관계대명사의 의미 및 중요성

  • bullet 관계대명사란 두 문장을 연결하는데 관계하는 대명사로, 앞의 명사를 꾸며 주는 역할을 합니다.

B 관계대명사의 종류

  • bullet 앞의 어떤 명사를 꾸며주느냐에 따라 서로 다른 관계대명사가 옵니다.
    앞의 명사가 사람이면 who를, 사물이나 동물 이면 which를 사용하며, that은 사람, 동물, 사물에 관계없이 사용합니다.

    He is the teacher. + The teacher came to our school yesterday.
    ⇒ He is the teacher who (=that) came to our school yesterday. (그는 어제 우리 학교로 오신 선생님이다.)

    Here is the store. + The store sells books.
    ⇒ Here is the store which (=that) sells books. (여기에 책을 파는 상점이 있다.)

    He is playing with the dog. + The dog lives next door.
    ⇒He is playing with the dog which (=that) lives next door.(그는 옆집에 사는 개와 놀고 있다.)

    I have two sons. + They live in Canada.
    ⇒ I have two sons that (=who) live in Canada. (나는 캐나다에 사는 두 아들이 있다.)

    bullet 위와 같이 관계대명사 앞의 명사가 관계대명사 뒤에 오는 절에서 주어이면 who, which, that을 사용하지만, 목적어이면 다른 관계대명사를 사용합니다. 즉, 앞의 명사가 사람인 경우 whom을 사용하고, 사물이나 동물 이면 which를 사용하며, that은 사람, 동물, 사물에 관계없이 사용합니다.
    그러나 간편하게 whom 대신에 who를 사용하기도 합니다.

    He is the teacher. + I like the teacher.(목적어)
    ⇒ He is the teacher whom (=who, that) I like. (그는 내가 좋아하는 선생님이다.)

    That is the book. + I read the book. (목적어)
    ⇒ That is the book which (=that) I read. (저것은 내가 읽었던 책이다.)

    bullet That is the bus. + I have waited for the bus. (목적어)
    ⇒ That is the bus which (=that) I have waited for. (저것은 내가 기다렸던 버스다.)
    ⇒ That is the bus for which I have waited.
    ⇒ That is the bus for that I have waited. (×)

    위의 예문처럼 전치사 for는 문장의 맨 뒤에 두어도 되고, 관계대명사 앞에 두어도 된다.
    단, 앞으로 놓는 경우에는 for that은 사용할 수 없고 반드시 for which를 사용해야 한다.

C 관계대명사의 생략

  • bullet 관계대명사 앞의 명사가 관계대명사 뒤에 오는 절에서 목적어이면, 관계대명사를 생략할 수 있습니다.

    He is the teacher whom I like. ⇒ He is the teacher I like.

    That is the book which I read. ⇒ That is the book I read.

    That is the bus which I have waited for. ⇒ That is the bus I have waited for.
    ⇒ That is the bus for I have waited. (×)
    이처럼 관계대명사가 생략된 경우에는 전치사 for는 앞에 둘 수 없습니다.

    bullet 또한 관계대명사 + be동사는 생략할 수 있습니다. 실제로 문장에서 많이 생략됩니다.
    A girl who was named Mary lived here. (메리라고 불리우는 한 소녀가 여기에 살았다.)
    A girl named Mary lived here.

    I bought the book which was written by him. (난 그에 의해 쓰여진 그 책을 샀다.)
    I bought the book written by him.

Exercise

정답확인
※ 다음 문장에 알맞은 것을 선택하세요.

1. He is the man (whom, which) we sent to you.
2. Is this the book (who, which) you wanted to read?
3. I have a friend (which, that) speaks English very well.
4. The toy train (that, who) I bought yesterday does not work.
5. That is the dog (that, with which) I played with at the park.
6. I saw the man (who, whom) stole your money.
7. Where is the clock (who, which) was on the wall?
8. Do you know the boy (that, which) she is talking to?
9. The man (whom, who) married my daughter is very rich.
10. I live in a small town (who, that) is near the sea.
line
1. whom
2. which
3. that
4. that
5. that
6. who
7. which
8. that
9. who
10. that