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알기 쉬운 영문법
인쇄
be 동사와 일반동사의 과거 was/were, worked/went

Key Expressions

  1. I [ He / She ] was a student.
    I [ He / She ] was not a student.
    = I [ He / She ] wasn't a student.
    Was I [ he / she ] a student?
  2. We [ You / They ] were students.
    We [ You / They ] were not students.
    = We [ You / They ] weren't students.
    Were we [ you / they ] students?
  3. I liked apples.
    I did not (또는 didn't) like apples.
    Did you like apples?

Basic Grammar

A was/were (be동사의 과거)

  • bullet '우리 말로 '~이다. ~입니다.' 에 해당하는 말로, 영어에서는 ‘am,’ ‘are,’ ‘is’ 를 be동사라고 부른다고 했습니다.
    이번에는 우리말로 '~이었다. ~이었습니다.' 에 해당하는 was/were을 배워 보겠습니다.
  • 주어 be동사의 현재 be동사의 과거
    I am was
    He/ She/ It is
    You/ We/ They are were
  • 현재 과거
    I am a student. (나는 학생입니다.) I was a student. (나는 학생이었습니다.)
    He is a student. He was a student.
    You are a student. You were a student.
  • 위에서 보는 것처럼 am과 is의 과거는 was로 are는 were로 바꾸기만 하면 됩니다.
  • 아래의 표를 보고 구체적으로 be동사 과거의 긍정문, 부정문, 의문문을 익혀 두시기 바랍니다.
    be동사 과거
    긍정문 부정문 의문문
    기본 형태 줄인 형태
    I was I was not I wasn't Was I ~?
    You were You were not You weren't Were you ~?
    He was He was not He wasn't Was he ~?
    She was She was not She wasn't Was she ~?
    It was It was not It wasn't Was it ~?
    We were We were not We weren't Were we ~?
    You were You were not You weren't Were you ~?
    They were They were not They weren't Were they ~?
    • bullet I [ He / She ] was a student.
    • bullet I [ He / She ] was not a student. = I [ He / She ] wasn't a student.
    • bullet Was I [ he / she ] a student?

    • bullet We [ You / They ] were students.
    • bullet We [ You / They ] were not students. = We [ You / They ] weren't students.
    • bullet Were we [ you / they ] students?

B 일반동사의 과거

  • bullet 일반동사의 과거도 be동사 과거처럼 몇 가지 규칙을 알고 나면 쉽게 익힐 수 있습니다.
    일반동사의 과거형은 보통 주어에 관계없이 동사원형에 -ed를 붙이면 되고, 부정문과 의문문에서는 do나 does 대신 did를 쓰면 됩니다.
  • 일반동사의 과거
    주어 일반동사의 현재 일반동사의 과거
    I/ You/ We/ They work worked
    He/ She/ It works
  • 현재 과거
    I work. (나는 일을 합니다.) I worked. (나는 일을 했습니다.)
    He works. He worked.
    I do not work. I did not work.
    He does not work. He did not work.
  • 아래 표를 통해 일반동사 과거의 긍정문, 부정문, 의문문을 익혀 두시기 바랍니다.
    긍정문 부정문 의문문
    기본 형태 줄인 형태
    I worked I did not work I didn't work Did I work ~?
    You worked You did not work You didn't work Did you work ~?
    He worked He did not work He didn't work Did he work ~?
    She worked She did not work She didn't work Did she work ~?
    It worked It did not work It didn't work Did it work ~?
    We worked We did not work We didn't work Did we work ~?
    You worked You did not work You didn't work Did you work ~?
    They worked They did not work They didn't work Did they work ~?
    • bullet I liked apples. (나는 사과를 좋아했다.)
    • bullet I did not (또는 didn't) like apples. (나는 사과를 좋아하지 않았다.)
    • bullet Did you like apples? (너는 사과를 좋아했느냐?)
  • 위에서 일반동사의 과거는 동사원형에 '-ed'를 붙인다고 했습니다.
    그러나 이 것 외에도 아래 표에서 보는 바와 같이 'd' 또는 'ied'를 붙이거나, 전혀 다른 형태로 변화하는 예외의 경우가 있습니다.
    1 동사 끝이 'e'로 끝나면 'ed'를 붙이지 않고 'd'만 붙이면 됩니다.
    현재 과거
    love loved
    like liked
    move moved
    love (사랑하다), like (좋아하다), move (움직이다)
    2 동사의 끝이 '단모음 + 단자음'으로 끝나면, 자음 하나를 더 쓰고, 'ed'를 붙입니다.
    현재 과거
    stop stopped
    plan planned
    admit admitted
    stop (중지하다), plan (계획하다), admit (인정하다)

    그러나 visit (방문하다) 의 과거는 visited입니다.
    (visitted가 아님. 단모음+ 단자음으로 끝나는 경우에도 visit 처럼액센트가 앞에 오는 경우에는 자음을 하나 더 쓰지 않습니다.
    admit 처럼 액센트가 뒤에 오는 경우에만 자음 하나를 더 붙입니다.
    예: prefer (더 좋아하다) ⇒ preferred
    3 동사의 끝이 '자음 + y' 로 끝나는 동사는 y 를 i 로 고치고 'ed'를 붙입니다.
    현재 과거
    study studied
    cry cried
    carry carried
    study (공부하다), cry (울다), carry (운반하다)

    그러나 play (놀다) 의 과거는 played입니다.
    (plaied가 아님. 모음 + y로 끝나는 경우에는 그냥 'ed'만 붙입니다.)
    4 동사의 현재형과 과거형이 같은 것
    현재 과거
    put put
    cut cut
    let let
    put (놓다), cut (자르다), let (~을 하게하다)
    5 규칙적으로 변하지 않는 것
    현재 과거
    have/has had
    go went
    come came
    find found
    say said
    have (가지고 있다), go (가다), come (오다), find (발견하다), say (말하다)

Exercise

정답확인
※ 다음 문장을 과거형으로 바꿀 때, 빈칸에 알맞은 말을 써 넣으세요.

1. You aren't a policeman. ⇒ You ______ a policeman.
2. Is she a teacher? ⇒ ______ she a teacher?
3. I am sick. ⇒ I ______ sick.
4. This is on the desk. ⇒ This ______ on the desk.
5. They study hard. ⇒ They ______ hard.
6. Do you have a camera? ⇒ ______ you ______ a camera?
7. She looks at the window. ⇒ She ______ at the window.
8. Do you go to school today? ⇒ ______ you ______ to school today?
9. I don't want an apple. ⇒ I ______ an apple.
10. She has a dog. ⇒ She ______ a dog.
line
1. weren't
2. Was
3. was
4. was
5. studied
6. Did, have
7. looked
8. Did, go
9. didn't want
10. had