알기 쉬운 영문법
인쇄
be 동사와 일반동사의 과거 was/were, worked/went

Key Expressions

  1. He / She ] was a student.
    I [ He / She ] was not a student.
    = I [ He / She ] wasn't a student.
    Was I [ he / she ] a student?
  2. We [ You / They ] were students.
    We [ You / They ] were not students.
    = We [ You / They ] weren't students.
    Were we [ you / they ] students?
  3. I liked an apple.
    I did not (또는 didn't) like an apple.
    Did you like an apple?

Basic Grammar

A was/were (be동사의 과거)

  • bullet '우리 말로 '~이다. ~입니다.' 에 해당하는 말로, 영어에서는 ‘am,’ ‘are,’ ‘is’ 를 be동사라고 부른다고 했습니다.
    이번에는 우리말로 '~이었다. ~이었습니다.' 에 해당하는 was/were에 해당하는 말을 배워 보겠습니다.
  • 주어 be동사의 현재 be동사의 과거
    I am was
    He/ She/ It is
    You/ We/ They are were
  • 현재 과거
    I am a student. (나는 학생입니다.) I was a student. (나는 학생이었습니다.)
    He is a student. He was a student.
    You are a student. You were a student.
  • 위에서 보는 것처럼 am과 is의 과거는 was로 are는 were로 바꾸기만 하면 됩니다.
  • 아래의 표를 보고 구체적으로 주어와 be동사 과거와의 관계를 익혀 두시기 바랍니다.
    주어와 be동사 과거와의 관계
    긍정문 부정문 의문문
    기본 형태 줄인 형태
    I was I was not I wasn't Was I?
    You were You were not You weren't Were you?
    He was He was not He wasn't Was he?
    She was She was not She wasn't Was she?
    It was It was not It wasn't Was it?
    We were We were not We weren't Were we?
    You were You were not You weren't Were you?
    They were They were not They weren't Were they?
    • bullet I [ He / She ] was a student.
    • bullet I [ He / She ] was not a student. = I [ He / She ] wasn't a student.
    • bullet Was I [ he / she ] a student?

    • bullet We [ You / They ] were students.
    • bullet We [ You / They ] were not students. = We [ You / They ] weren't students.
    • bullet Were we [ you / they ] students?

B 일반동사의 과거

  • bullet 일반 동사의 과거형도 'be 동사'처럼 몇 가지 규칙을 알고 나면, 쉽게 일반 동사의 과거형을 익힐 수 있으며, 일반적으로 주어에 관계없이 동사원형에 -ed를 붙이면 되며, 부정문이나 의문문에 사용했던 do나 does는 did로 바꾸면 됩니다.
  • 일반동사의 과거
    주어 일반동사의 현재 일반동사의 과거
    I/ You/ We/ They work worked
    He/ She/ It works
    I/ You/ We/ They do did
    He/ She/ It does
  • 현재 과거
    I work. (나는 일을 합니다.) I worked. (나는 일을 했습니다.)
    He works. He worked.
    I do not work. I did not work.
    He does not work. He did not work.
  • 아래 표를 통해 일반동사의 주어와 일반동사과거와의 관계를 익혀 두시기 바랍니다.
    긍정문 부정문 의문문
    기본 형태 줄인 형태
    I worked I did not work I didn't work Did I work?
    You worked You did not work You didn't work Did you work?
    He worked He did not work He didn't work Did he work?
    She worked She did not work She didn't work Did she work?
    It worked It did not work It didn't work Did it work?
    We worked We did not work We didn't work Did we work?
    You worked You did not work You didn't work Did you work?
    They worked They did not work They didn't work Did they work?
    • bullet I liked an apple. (나는 사과를 좋아했다.)
    • bullet I did not (또는 didn't) like an apple. (나는 사과를 좋아하지 않았다.)
    • bullet Did you like an apple? (너는 사과를 좋아했느냐?)
  • 위에서 일반동사의 과거는 동사원형에 '-ed'를 붙인다고 했습니다.
    그러나 이 것 외에도 아래 표에서 보는 바와 같이 'd' 또는 'ied'를 붙이거나, 전혀 다른 형태로 변화하는 예외의 경우가 있습니다.
    1 동사 끝이 'e'로 끝나면 'ed'를 또 붙이지 않고 'd'만 붙이면 됩니다.
    현재 과거
    love loved
    like liked
    move moved
    love (사랑하다), like (좋아하다), move (움직이다)
    2 동사의 끝이 '단모음 + 단자음'으로 끝나면, 자음 하나를 더 쓰고, 'ed'를 붙입니다.
    현재 과거
    stop stopped
    plan planned
    admit admitted
    stop (중지하다), plan (계획하다), admit (허락하다)

    그러나 visit (방문하다) 의 과거는 visited입니다.
    (visitted가 아님. 단모음+ 단자음으로 끝나는 경우에도 visit 처럼액센트가 앞에 오는 경우에는 자음을 하나 더 쓰지 않습니다.
    admit 처럼 액센트가 뒤에 오는 경우에만 자음 하나를 더 붙입니다.
    예: prefer (더 좋아하다) ⇒ preferred
    3 동사의 끝이 '자음 + y' 로 끝나는 동사는 y 를 i 로 고치고 'ed'를 붙입니다.
    현재 과거
    study studied
    cry cried
    carry carried
    study (공부하다), cry (울다), carry (운반하다)

    그러나 play (놀다) 의 과거는 played입니다.
    (plaied가 아님. 모음 + y로 끝나는 경우에는 그냥 'ed'만 붙입니다.)
    4 동사의 현재형과 과거형이 같은 것
    현재 과거
    put put
    cut cut
    let let
    put (놓다), cut (자르다), let (~을 하게하다)
    5 규칙적으로 변하지 않는 것
    현재 과거
    have/has had
    go went
    come came
    find found
    say said
    have (가지고 있다), go (가다), come (오다), find (발견하다), say (말하다)

Exercise

정답확인
※ 다음 문장을 과거형으로 바꿀 떄, 빈칸에 알맞는 말을 써 넣으세요.

1. You aren't a policeman. ⇒ You ______ a policeman.
2. Is she a teacher? ⇒ ______ she a teacher?
3. I am sick. ⇒ I ______ sick.
4. This is on the desk. ⇒ This ______ on the desk.
5. They study hard. ⇒ They ______ hard.
6. Do you have a camera? ⇒ ______ you ______ a camera?
7. She looks at the window. ⇒ She ______ at the window.
8. Do you go to school today? ⇒ ______ you ______ to school today?
9. I don't want an apple. ⇒ I ______ an apple.
10. She has a dog. ⇒ She ______ a dog.
line
1. weren't
2. Was
3. was
4. was
5. studied
6. Did, have
7. looked
8. Did, go
9. didn't want
10. had